A skull fracture is any break in the cranial(skull) bone.

Causes of Cranial fracture

Although there can be various causes of fracture but following are the main factors responsible for skull fracture:

  • A strong impact or a blow to the head
  • Head injury
  • Falls
  • Automobile accidents
  • Physical assault
  • Sports

Symptoms of Cranial fracture

A skull fracture isn’t always easy to see as symptoms may appear immediately or in 24 hours of the cause. It can be indicated by following symptoms:

  • Swelling (bump) and tenderness around the area of impact
  • Bruising
  • Bleeding from wound, ears, nose, or around eyes
  • Changes in pupils (sizes unequal, not reactive to light)
  • Blurred vision
  • Confusion
  • Restlessness
  • Convulsions
  • Difficulties with balance
  • Drainage of clear or bloody fluid from ears or nose
  • Excessive drowsiness
  • Fainting
  • Headache
  • Neck pain or stiffness
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Nausea
  • Restlessness, irritability
  • Slurred speech
  • Stiff neck
  • Swelling
  • Visual disturbances
  • Vomiting

Diagnosis of Cranial fracture

A physician sometimes is able to diagnose fracture on physical examination of the head or trauma site. But to diagnose the extent and exact nature of the damage, following diagnostic tests may be performed:

  • X-rays
  • CT or CAT scan
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRIs)

Treatment of Cranial Fracture

Treatment specifically depends upon the location and severity of the fracture. It may include:

  • Pain medication for mild fractures
  • Neurosurgery for more serious injuries
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